Heart diseases refer to various types of heart conditions, of which the most common type is coronary heart disease that can cause heart attacks. Other kinds of heart diseases include diseases of the heart valves, diseases related to heart rhythm, diseases of the heart musculature that can cause heart failure and congenital heart defects in which a child is born with heart defects. According to one report by the World Health Organisation, these type of diseases are the leading cause of deaths in India and India is currently witnessing a rising trend in heart disease-related deaths. Besides genetic factors, physical inactivity and genetic factors are the two major factors that are responsible for this rising trend. If this trend continues, India will soon become the heart disease capital in the world. Smoking, unhealthy diet, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, high blood sugar increases the risk of coronary artery disease. Indians are 3 to 4 times higher than their western counterpart and about 20 times higher than their Japanese counterpart. Also, the coronary arteries disease develops at a much younger age in Indians. The average age of heart attacks in India is about 53 years and 10% of heart attacks occur in Indian men and women who are less than 40 years old.
Causes and Symptoms
Anyone including children is prone to heart disease, and the disease occurs when a cholesterol-rich substance, which is also known as plaque, builds up in your arteries. This plaque progressively narrows the arteries, reducing blood supply to the portion of the heart. When the plaque ruptures, it totally ruptures the artery, totally cutting off the supply to a part of the heart. The disease depends on the type of the involvement of the heart. Someone who is having a heart attack may experience the symptoms involving chest pain. Chest pain is more likely heaviness over the chest that can radiate up to the jaw and that can radiate up to the left arm. Other symptoms of heart attack may include suffocation and shortness of breath, profuse sweating or palpitations, dizziness, a feeling of weakness and vomiting.
If you adopt a healthy lifestyle you can prevent or retard the progression of heart disease. The components of lifestyle modification include quit smoking, maintain a balanced body weight, eat a balanced and healthy diet, exercise regularly at least 30 mins per day, 5 days a week, proper sleep is also important, always have a positive attitude and sense of well- being in your mind and preventive health check-ups. Preventive health check-ups are very important. By doing a preventive health checkup you can diagnose heart disease at a very early age and it is recommended that a person who is more than 40 years of age and having risk factor for heart diseases should undergo screening test in the form of Echo, which is also known as ultrasound of the heart, and treadmill test in which a person is asked to perform the stress on a treadmill and then simultaneously record on the ECG, and by doing this test we can diagnose coronary artery disease at a young age and we can treat it accordingly.
If a patient is already suffering from a heart attack or heart disease, then he/she can be advised for coronary angiography. Coronary angiography is basically the x-ray imaging of the heart with the help of a contrast, in which a radial artery, which is the artery of the wrist can be used to convulate the heart, After angiography, depending on his coronary artery, the patient can be advised for angioplasty. In which a stent-like device is positioned across the blocked vessels or bypass grafting in which native conduits from the patient’s body are used to bypass the fluid in the vessels. If a patient is not suitable for either angioplasty or bypass surgery, then he can be kept on optical medical treatment, with subsequent follow up for any progression of symptoms or progression of the disease.